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Related to: Unintentional Injuries, Streets and Highways, Major Causes of Mortality, Socio-economic Inequality, Children and Young People, Active Travel

Key Facts

  • There are approximately 40 people killed or seriously injured in road traffic accidents each year in B&NES, which is a rate of 24.2 per 100,000 population (in 2009) which is below the national average of 41.7 
  • Road traffic collisions are one of the most common causes of death in young people; particularly males 
  • In 2011-13 the average rate of children aged 0 to 15 years who were killed or seriously injured in road traffic accidents per 100,000 0-15 population in B&NES was 11.2, lower than the South West as a whole (14.0) and England (19.1).
  • Pedal cyclist injuries have increased with time (59 to Jan-Oct 2010; average of 45 from 2004-09) and a higher percentage of people killed or seriously injured in traffic accidents involve cyclists compared with nationally (10% of accidents in B&NES, 7% nationally, 6% regionally). However, this could reflect higher/increasing rates of cycling amongst the B&NES population.
  • During 2010/11, the Council met its 40% reduction target set for all people killed or seriously injured in road traffic accidents, together with a 50% reduction target for children

What does the data say?

Road traffic collisions data primarily comes from two sources, police reports of collisions and hospital admissions that are coded as being caused by road traffic accidents. However, both sources are incomplete; as sometimes a collision occurs which is reported to the police but no one is admitted to hopsital as a result and sometimes, someone is admitted to hospital but the incident goes unreported to the police.

There were 1,165 traffic collisions in B&NES recorded by Transport and Highways in 36 months prior to December 2011 – 167 OAPs, 113 children

Mortality

There are an average of 10 deaths from land traffic accidents a year in B&NES, these are disproportionately in young males. 1

Mortality from land transport accidents has remained relatively stationary with time whereas nationally and regionally rates have decreased, although due to small numbers there is major year on year variation at a B&NES level compared with regionally and nationally and so this distinction is less clear

The most recent data shows that rates are in line with regional and national rates (1996 6.5 per 100,000, 2010 3.5 per 100,000) (3 per 100,000 nationally, 3.7 per 100,000 regionally 2010) 2

There are approximately 40 people killed or seriously injured in road traffic accidents each year in B&NES, which is a rate of 24.2 per 100,000 population (in 2009) which is below the national average of 41.7 3

Injuries

Number of road traffic casualties per 100,000 population in 2009 = 317 for B&NES, which is below the national rate of 361 4

Pedal cyclist injuries have increased with time (59 to Jan-Oct 2010; average of 45 from 2004-09) and a higher percentage of people killed or seriously injured in traffic accidents involve cyclists compared with nationally (10% of accidents in B&NES, 7% nationally, 6% regionally). However, this could reflect higher/increasing rates of cycling amongst the B&NES population.

The number of emergency admissions involving bus occupants has increased with time (peak 34 in 2009) for emergency admissions (highways data). There were 22 in 2010 compared to 11 in 2005 5

Number of pedestrian casualties per 100,000 population in 2009 = 43.9 per 100,000 compared to 45 for England 6

Slightly higher percentage of people killed or seriously injured in traffic accidents involve elderly casualties than nationally (8% B&NES, 5% nationally, 6% regionally)

20% of road traffic accidents involve pedestrians (21% nationally, 16% regionally) 7

Children and Young Peoples Injuries/mortality

In 2011-13 the average rate of children aged 0 to 15 years who were killed or seriously injured in road traffic accidents per 100,000 0-15 population in B&NES was 11.2, (an increase from an average of 10.1 in 2010-12). The B&NES average rate for 2011-13 was lower than the South West as a whole (14.0) and England (19.1). 8 

Average annual rate of reported child (ages 0-15) road traffic casualties per 100,000 population (2007-2009):

  • For Pedal cyclists: 22.3/100,000 for B&NES and 33.7/100,000 for England.
  • For pedestrians: 53.5/100,000 for B&NES and 84/100,000 for England 9
  • 37% where children are involved are pedestrians, 23% of pedestrian accidents involve children

The rate per 1000 population of emergency hospital admissions in under 18s has fallen over the last 9 years. Using 3-year rolling averages, the rate has decreased from 1.5 (2003-06) to 1.1 (2009-12) 10

This reduction is also apparent in numbers of emergency admissions for road traffic collisions in under 5s.

Geographical differences

Wards with significantly high number of emergency admissions (2004-09) due to road traffic collisions are Midsomer Norton North, Bathavon North, Westfield and Paulton (note: this is the location of where injured live and may not reflect the location of incident)

In addition to these wards, Radstock has significantly high numbers of emergency admissions where a car occupant is injured; Twerton, Newbridge and Walcot (highest) have significantly high numbers of emergency admissions where a pedal cyclist is injured; Southdown and Keynsham North – motorcyclists; Westmoreland and Oldfield – pedestrians 11

Hotspot for road traffic accidents in Abbey and Kingsmead (City Centre)

Wards with significantly high numbers of road traffic collisions (highest first) – Abbey, Bathavon North, Keynsham North, Widcombe, Farmborough, Bathavon West, Bathavon South

  • Car – Bathavon North, South and West, Farmborough
  • Cycle – Widcombe, Kingsmead, Lyncombe, Abbey, Keynsham East
  •  Lorry – Abbey, Keynsham North, Widcombe, Publow and Whitchurch
  •  Pedestrians - Abbey

There has been a decrease of road traffic collisions over time

Bus accidents have decreased with time (12 month rolling) to beginning 2011 but recently seen an increase

Cycle accidents have increased with time (52 12 months prior to Oct 2011)

13% of cycling accidents involve children (20 in last 36 months)

Car, lorry, motorbike and pedestrian accidents have decreased with time 12

Non-collision Cycling Injuries

Non-collision incidents occur when cyclists lose balance and fall to the ground, without colliding with anything or without anything running into them.

Bath and North East Somerset 13

During 2012, NC cycling incidents caused 198 emergency admissions of Avon residents and 18.9% of all travel and transport related emergency admissions, of which 81-119 emergency admissions occurred on-road.

Of all NCI admissions in BNSSG during 2011-12, 28% were 0-17 (1.1/1,000), 67% were 18-64 (3.97/1,000), and 5% were 65+ (2.14/1,000) (Rates per 1000 head of population in 2011 using mid 2011 ONS pop forecast and 2011 injury data for BNSSG.)

The proportion of on-road (vs off-road) cycling NC injuries increases with age. 22% of emergency admissions to 0-17 year olds are on road, 47% for 18-64 and 50% for over 65s

61% of all age NCIs occur on the road, 19% on cycle paths and 5% on off road paths or trails.

26% of all reported incidents were due to slipping on ice, 76% of which occurred on the Main highway /road, 16% on a cycle path.

Bristol 14

The leading cause of emergency hospital admission to vulnerable road users (pedestrians and cyclists) is from non-collision cycling injuries. These injuries caused approximately four times as many serious injuries to cyclists (9,447 in 2008/09) than collisions between cyclists and cars, pick-up trucks and vans

Whilst it is fear of a collision that puts people off cycling, in fact non-collision incidents are the more serious hazard

The top three causes are:

1. Slipping on ice (26% of all reported NCIs)

2. Slipping on wet road (8% of all reported NCIs)

3. Slipped on soil, mud, gravel, wet rock (7% of all reported NCIs) 15

Slipping on ice causes 35% of all non-collision incidents on the commute to work. The results did not appear to be influenced by the cold winter of 2009/10.

Only a few non-collision cycling incidents cause serious injury - between 63%-70% of all incidents cause no injury worthy of professional treatment

Most of the 30% requiring treatment are minor, but a small proportion causes a significant number of serious injuries

There were 24 hospital admissions for non-collision bicycle accidents in 2009 and there has been no notable change over time 16

What does the community say?

The National Highways and Transportation survey 17

The National Highways and Transportation survey is a postal survey, with questionnaires sent to a minimum sample of 4,500 households in each participating local authority area:

  • Overall satisfaction in line with nationally (B&NES 54.3%, nationally 54.4%), and increased by around 2% from last year as did nationally
  • Overall there has been a small increase in satisfaction since 2008

Change between 2010 and 11:

  •  Increase in most sections
  •  Decrease in satisfaction with KBI 04 ease of access (disabilities) (decrease of 9%) (62% satisfaction)
  • Decrease in satisfaction with traffic levels and congestion (decrease of 5%) (2011 35% satisfaction)
  • Highest increase in transport safety education (11%) (59% satisfaction) and cycle routes and facilities (10%) (56% satisfaction)

Satisfaction with Road Safety

Satisfaction with road safety has, in general, increased from 2010-11 except with respect to safety while walking.

Satisfaction with the safety of children cycling to school and road safety education increased by 11% and 12.6% respectively.

However, it is still slightly below national average for both children cycling and walking to school and with respect to road safety training/education.

Figure 1: Satisfaction results for road safety by B&NES respondentsSatisfaction results for road saftey by B&NES respondents - bar graph

  • Safety of cycling – satisfied – 36%
  • Safety of children cycling to school – satisfied 30%
  • Safety of children walking to school – satisfied 44%

The 2013 Child Health-Related Behaviour Survey- Children and cycling safety 18  19

The Health-Related Behaviour Survey developed by the Schools Health Education Unit (SHEU) is designed for young people of primary and secondary school age. The surveys have been developed by health and education professionals, and cover a wide range of topics. Data arising from the survey can be used to help inform planning and policy decisions as well being used in the classroom as the stimulus for discussion with young people. These surveys are carried out every two years.

When considering the results of the Child Health-Related Behaviour Survey in B&NES it is worth bearing in mind the level of participation in the survey, and thus how representative the responses are likely to be of children in B&NES as a whole. For more information see the Child Health-Related Behaviour Survey section in Children and Young People

As well as the local B&NES results, comparisons are made with national/aggregate figures from all the surveys conducted by the Schools Health Education Unit (SHEU) in the previous year from their publication “Young People into 2013”. The national sample used for the 2013 comparison consists of 43,014 young people aged 10 to 15.

Wearing a helmet when cycling is thought to be a key means to reduce the severity of Unintentional Injuries in the event of a cycling accident or collision.

When the Child Health-Related Behaviour Survey in B&NES in 2013 asked primary school children in B&NES in year 4 and 6 whether they wear a safety helmet when cycling:

  • 46% of pupils responded that they wear a safety helmet ‘whenever possible’ when cycling, this is higher than the SHEU national rate of 32%, and is an increase on the 2011 rate of 39%.
  • 21% of pupils responded that they ‘never or almost never’ wear a safety helmet when cycling,  this is a lot lower than the national SHEU rate of 40%, and is a reduction from 2011, when the rate was 30%.

In order to acquire some idea if there were any differences in terms of children that were likely to be from a more deprived background the primary school children were asked if they had ever had free school meals, or vouchers for free school meals.

10% (116) of year 4 and 6 respondents in 2013 stated that they were receiving or eligible to receive free school meals.

A significantly higher proportion of the primary school pupils eligible for free school meals (FSM) responded that they never or almost never’ wear a safety helmet when cycling, 38% compared to the 19% of children that stated that they were not eligible for them. 20 This indicates that there may be a link between Socio-economic Inequality and cycle safety amongst children.

When the Child Health-Related Behaviour Survey in B&NES in 2013 asked secondary school children in B&NES in year 8 and 10 whether they wear a safety helmet when cycling:

  • 26% (22% in 2011) of pupils responded that they wear a helmet ‘most times’ or ‘always’ when they cycled, higher than the national SHEU rate of 15%.
  • 15% of pupils said that they sometimes wear a helmet when they cycled.
  • 20% of pupils responded that they ‘hardly ever or never’ wear a helmet when cycling.

The Child Health-Related Behaviour Survey also tried to establish whether there were any differences between secondary school children that are likelyto be from a more deprived background. To do this it found out the numbers of secondary school year 8 and 10 respondents that were eligible for the pupil premium.

The pupil premium is additional funding given to publicly funded schools in England to raise the attainment of disadvantaged pupils and close the gap between them and their peers.

Pupil premium funding is available to both mainstream and non-mainstream schools, such as special schools and pupil referral units. It is paid to schools according to the number of pupils who have been:

  • registered as eligible for free school meals at any point in the last 6 years
  • been in care for 6 months or longer 21

10% (247) of year 8 and 10 respondents in 2013 were eligible for the pupil premium.

A lower proportion of the secondary school pupils eligible the pupil premium (PP) responded that they wear a helmet ‘most times’ or ‘always’ when they cycled, 15%, compared to the 27% of children that were not eligible for them.  22

Are we meeting the needs? 23

Highways and Transport provides a relatively high performing and low cost service, three times lower than the UK average, potentially benefitting from the Council’s extensive repair and resurfacing programme to improve the roads and make them safer for motorists and cyclists. During 2010/11, the Council met its 40% reduction target set for all people killed or seriously injured in road traffic accidents, together with a 50% reduction target for children

  • 1. NHS Information Centre Indicator Portal (1996-2010) Land transport accidents 1996-2010, directly standardised rate, all ages, annual trend, MFP (downloaded 12/3/2012) https://indicators.ic.nhs.uk/webview/ 
  • 2. NHS Information Centre Indicator Portal (1996-2010) Land transport accidents 1996-2010, directly standardised rate, all ages, annual trend, MFP (downloaded 12/3/2012) https://indicators.ic.nhs.uk/webview/ 
  • 3. NHS Information Centre Indicator Portal (2002-2009) LBOI Indicator 9.6 - Number of people killed or seriously injured in roadtraffic accidents per 100,000 population (11/04/2012) https://indicators.ic.nhs.uk/webview/ 
  • 4. NHS Information Centre Indicator Portal (2002-2009) LBOI Indicator 9.4 - Number of road traffic casualties per 100,000 population, by Local Authority, 2009 (11/04/2012) https://indicators.ic.nhs.uk/webview/ 
  • 5. SUS data (2004-2009) hospital admissions for road traffic accidents, in-house analysis
  • 6. NHS Information Centre Indicator Portal(2002-09) LBOI Indicator 9.3 - Number of pedestrian casualties per 100,000 population (downloaded 12/3/2012) https://indicators.ic.nhs.uk/webview/ 
  • 7. ONS Percentage of Road Accidents by Type and Age, 2003, in-house analysis
  • 8. Public Health England (2015) Children killed or seriously injured in road traffic accidents, http://fingertips.phe.org.uk/search/road%20traffic#page/0/gid/1/pat/6/par/E12000009/ati/102/are/E06000022/iid/90804/age/169/sex/4 
  • 9. NHS Information Centre Indicator Portal (2007-2009) LBOI Indicator 9.8 -Average annual rate of reported child (age 0-15) road traffic casualties per 100,000 population (11/04/2012) https://indicators.ic.nhs.uk/webview/ 
  • 10. Detailed analysis of emergency admissions to under 18s and under 5s 2003 to 2012, In house analysis
  • 11. SUS data (2004-2009) hospital admissions for road traffic accidents, in-house analysis
  • 12. Bath and North East Somerset Council (2011) Highways and Transport Road Traffic Collision Data (2008-2011), in-house analysis
  • 13. Facts about non-collision cycling injuries (NCIs), Bath and North East Somerset Council in-house report
  • 14. Avonsafe NHS Public Health Network (2010) Non-Collision cycling Injuries (downloaded 11/04./2012) http://www.avon.nhs.uk/phnet/Avonsafe/Cycling%20Injuries/Cycling%20Injuries.htm
  • 15. Benington, R (2010) The Causes and Circumstances of non-collision cycling incidents – analysis of interim results (summer 2010), NHS Bristol
  • 16. SUS data (2009) emergency admissions for non-collision bicycle accidents, Bath and North East Somerset PCT in-house analysis
  • 17. National Highways and Transport Network (2008-11) National Highways and Transportation public satisfaction survey (downloaded 13/04/2012) http://nhtsurvey.econtrack.co.uk/
  • 18. Schools Health Education Unit (2013) The Health-Related Behaviour Survey 2013, A report for BANES Primary, Bath and North East Somerset Council
  • 19. Schools Health Education Unit (2013) The Health-Related Behaviour Survey 2013, A report for BANES Secondary, Bath and North East Somerset Council
  • 20. Schools Health Education Unit (2013) The Health-Related Behaviour Survey 2013, B&NES  Primary  Pupil Premium Headline Results, Bath and North East Somerset Council
  • 21. Department of Education (2014) Pupil premium: funding for schools and alternative provision,  https://www.gov.uk/pupil-premium-information-for-schools-and-alternative-provision-settings (viewed 11/04/14)
  • 22. Schools Health Education Unit (2013) The Health-Related Behaviour Survey 2013, B&NES  Secondary Pupil Premium Headline Results, Bath and North East Somerset Council
  • 23. Bath and North East Somerset Council (2011) Highways and Transport, in-house information