Related to: Faith and Belief, Children and Young People, Hypertension, Diabetes, Cancer, Smoking, Physical Activity, Education, Safeguarding Adults, Hate Crime and Hate Incidents, Wellbeing, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, [[Children in Care]]

Key Facts

  • Approximately 10% (17,500 people) of the B&NES population are non-white-British.
  • The second most common ethnicity is 'Other White' and this population group is increasing. 
  • 71% of hate crime is ethnicity related. 
  • There are a disproportionate number of children in care from BME groups.

What the Data Says

The 2011 Census showed the population of Bath & North East Somerset to be 90% White British and 10% other ethnicities, there are approximately 17,500 residents of B&NES who are not White British. This is a slightly higher percentage of other ethnicities than the South West Region (8%) but lower than England (20%) 1 

Of the non-white-british ethncities in B&NES, the next largest single group is 'Other White' with 6,600 residents selecting this ethnicity. It is likely that a large proportion of this group will be from the EU Accession states. There are also aproximately 4,500 people of Asian or Asian British descent living in B&NES.  

Changes since the 2001 Census

The biggest changes to the ethnicity of the population since the 2001 census have been a 4% drop in the proportion of White British people in the population, a 1.3% rise in 'Other White' (2,400 extra people) and a 2,800 rise in numbers of Asian/British Asian people, most of whom are Chinese (1,050) or 'Other Asian' (1,000) 2

Children and Young People

The Child Health-Related Behaviour Survey 3 4

The Health-Related Behaviour Survey, developed by the Schools Health Education Unit, is designed for young people of primary and secondary school age. The surveys have been developed by health and education professionals and cover a wide range of topics.

As well as the local B&NES results, comparisons are made with national/aggregate figures from all the surveys conducted by the Schools Health Education Unit (SHEU) in the previous year from their publication “Young People into 2013”. The national sample used for the 2013 comparison consists of 43,014 young people aged 10 to 15.

When considering the results of the Child Health-Related Behaviour Survey in B&NES it is worth bearing in mind the level of participation in the survey, and thus how representative the responses are likely to be of children in B&NES as a whole. For more information see the Child Health-Related Behaviour Survey section in Children and Young People

87% of primary school respondents (Year 4 and 6) in B&NES of the Child Health-Related Behaviour Survey described themselves as white UK, this is similar to the national SHEU rate of 89%. 

90% of secondary school respondents (Year 8 and 10) in B&NES of the Child Health-Related Behaviour Survey described themselves as white UK, this is similar to the national SHEU rate of 87%. 

These results also reflect that of the 2011 Census.

Physical Health

Ethnicity is not recorded for many health conditions so information for equalities monitoring is not normally available at a local level.

Based on estimates using national figures, It is likely people of White and Black ethnicities will have significantly higher rates of Hypertension in B&NES than other ethnicities.

  • White- 29.3% (33.4% South West, 31.7% England)
  • Mixed- 11.9% (14.9% South West, 14.8% England)
  • Black- 23.7% (27.9% South West, 29.5% England)
  • Asian- 13.06% (18.3% South West, 20.9% England)
  • Other- 14.0% (16.8% South West, 17.5% England) 5

The estimated prevalence rates of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) amongst the following ethnicity groups in Bath and North East Somerset are all below those of the South West and England and are as follows: 6

  • White (including mixed and other)- 2.5% (3.4% South West, 3.7% England)
  • Black- 2.1% (3.0% South West, 4.1% England)
  • Asian- 0.9% (1.8% South West, 2.3% England)

The minimal national coverage target (70% of eligible screening population) for breast and cervical cancer are met across Bath and North East Somerset’s four Primary Care Trusts; the optimal target (which is the same as the previously set regional minimal target of 80%) has also been met by B&NES PCTs. However, the minimal target for bowel cancer screening of 60% has not been met. There are differences in screening coverage by ethnicity and deprivation. 7 The Bath and North East Somerset Clinical Commissioning Groups Commissioning Intentions for the cancer programme for 2013/14 includes an action point of Development of Commissioning for Quality and Innovation (CQUIN) payments for recording of ethnicity of new cancer cases within 3 months of diagnosis. 8

Mental Health & Wellbeing

Significantly lower wellbeing was recorded by people of a non-white ethnicity across the range of questions 9

Lifestyle

Smoking rates amongst minority ethnic groups are generally lower than the population as a whole. However rates vary considerably between ethnic groups and amongst men and women within ethnic groups. Higher rates of smoking are found in men in Black Caribbean (37%) Bangladeshi (36%) Chinese (31%) and White Other (30%) populations. These differences could be explained by socio economic differences between groups. Smoking rates among women are low with the exception of Black Caribbean (24%) and White Irish (26%) populations. 10 Using these rates there are an estimated 1700 BME smokers in B&NES
 
Evidence shows that minority ethnic groups in England are as ready to quit smoking as the general population, however fewer have made an attempt to stop through using professional support. Whilst the black and minority ethnic population in B&NES is almost 10% only 2.8% of people accessing cessation support services during 2011/12 were from these groups. Those from BME groups setting a quit date were also less likely to successfully quit (36% quit rate) compared to the other groups (52%) 11
 

Key Stage 2

Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) attainment gap between this group of pupils and all pupils overall is 8.6%. However, numbers are low and results are analysed by individual school and pupil

At Key stage 2 the greatest attainment gap is between those of mixed ethnicity and all pupils, however, this gap has seen a decrease with time (small numbers) 12

Crime

There are relatively small numbers of reported Hate Crime and Hate Incidents in Bath and North East Somerset. There were 167 hate crimes and hate incidents reported to the police from Apr 2010 – Mar 2011.13

The vast majority (71%) of hate crimes and incidents recorded by the police in Bath and North East Somerset between February 2012 and February 2013 were motivated by racial prejudice.14

It has been suggested that nationally estimated racial/religious hate crime is over 3.5 times that of the recorded crimes (British Crime Survey 2007/8) which would mean that in Bath and North East Somerset the 133 reported racial/religious hate crimes reported in 2010 could be closer to 483 racial/religious Hate crimes and hate incidents.15

A majority of victims of hate crime and hate incidents are male, with around a third of victims being under 25 16

The ethnicity of victims of racially/religiously aggravated crimes/incidents reported to the police in Bath and North East Somerset between April 2008 and March 2011: 17

  • White British – 12%
  • Other White 15%
  • Black – 18%
  • Asian – 17%
  • Other - 9%
  • Not Known - 29%

A study compiled by the police suggests that victims tend to be bus and taxi drivers, particularly those of Polish origin.

A quarter of all racial incidents where victim ethnicity is recorded the victim is “Black” and three quarters of all recorded hate crimes and hate incidents are reported as “violent crime”.

Although local numbers are too small to allow for reliable estimation, national research has suggested that black and minority ethnic lesbian and gay people are significantly more likely to have experienced a physical assault as a homophobic hate incident compared with lesbian and gay people as a whole. 18

National surveys indicate that the majority of hate crimes are committed by strangers. 19 20 21 However, it is believed that young people are particularly vulnerable to hate incidents committed by family members. 22

Nearly three quarters of known offenders are male and over half are committed by offenders who are under 25. Most offenders in Bath and North East Somerset are classified as “White British”.23

[[Children in Care]]

Ethnicity of children in care at 31 March 2011(*suppressed <5) 24

There are disproportionate numbers of BME children in care:

  • 12.5% of children in care are from a black or ethnic minority background but only 10% of the population is BME.
  • In Particular 9.4% of Children in care are from a mixed ethnic bathground whereas only 1.6% of the population is from a Mixed ethnic background.

Table 5: Ethnicity of children in care 

Ethnicity

B&NES number (rounded to nearest 5)

B&NES %

South West %

England %

White

140

87.5

90.1

76.8

Mixed

15

9.4

4.7

8.6

Asian or Asian British

<5

x

0.8

4.7

Black or Black British

5

3.1

1.9

6.9

Other ethnic groups

0

0.0

1.6

2.3

Refused/not yet obtained

<5

x

1.0

0.6

Safeguarding Adults 25

There is no evidence of a disproportionate number of safeguarding referrals being from BME groups. During 2011-12 the percentage of non-white British referrals recorded is 5.1% and 89.4% for white British, which is similar to the proportion of the population as a whole that are White British. However it should be noted that 5.5% of cases had missing data for the field of ethnicity, this is potentially an area of risk for equalities monitoring. Though the NHSIC also reported that 89% of all referrals were for vulnerable adults belonging to the white ethnic group.

Additional work was undertaken to raise awareness amongst black and ethnic minority groups during 2010-2011.

Numbers are too small to determine if there are inequalities related to ethnicity around numbers of children with Child Protection Plans.

National Health Inequalities for BME groups 26

Differences in the health of Black and other minority groups are most prominent in the following areas of health: mental health, cancer, heart disease and related illnesses such as stroke, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Tuberculosis (TB) and diabetes. Additionally an increase in the number of older Black and other minority people in the UK is likely to lead to a greater need for provision of dementia services as well as the provision of culturally competent social care and palliative care.

Key findings;

  • Admission rates for Mental Health services remain high for BME patients (23% in 2010) as do detention and seclusion rates.
  • The Irish population in Britain has a history of higher rates of mental ill-health, particularly depression and alcohol related disorders.
  • Health outcomes for the Gypsy and Irish Traveller community significantly lower than the rest of the population.
  • There are over 11,500 people with dementia from BME groups in the UK and evidence suggests they are less likely to receive a diagnosis or receive it at a later stage delaying support services.
  • Women from BME communities are more likely to present with more advanced breast cancers and have poorer survival rates and black men have higher rates of prostate cancer.
  • HIV disproportionally affects Black Africans, with 2 thirds being female.
  • People from BME groups are up to 6 times more likely to develop diabetes than white people.
  • Pakistani and Bangladeshi groups have the highest rates of disability in old age of any ethnic group.

Proposed measures to tackle disparities in health outcomes for BME communities include;

  • Access to services
  • Diagnosis, treatment and quality of services
  • Aftercare following treatment
  • Commissioning of services
  • Improved data collection

 

  • 1. ONS (2011) Census data: Ethinicity and National Identity http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/publications/re-reference-tables.html?edition=tcm%3A77-286262 
  • 2. Census Reference Tables (2001) http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/publications/re-reference-tables.html?edition=tcm%3A77-211026 
  • 3. Schools Health Education Unit (2013) The Health-Related Behaviour Survey 2013, A report for BANES Primary, Bath and North East Somerset Council
  • 4. Schools Health Education Unit (2013) The Health-Related Behaviour Survey 2013, A report for BANES Secondary, Bath and North East Somerset Council
  • 5. APHO, Association of Public Health Observatories, Modelled estimates of prevalence of Hypertension at PCT level based on Nacul & Soljak model, ERPHO (2011) http://www.apho.org.uk/resource/item.aspx?RID=111119 (Viewed on 25/09/12)
  • 6.   APHO, Association of Public Health Observatories, Modelled estimates of prevalence of COPD at PCTlevel based on Nacul & Soljak model, ERPHO (2011) http://www.apho.org.uk/resource/view.aspx?RID=48308 (Viewed on 24/09/12)
  • 7.   Gjini. A (2012) Cancer mortality in Bath and North East Somerset and the rest of Avon: its burden and inequalities, NHS Bath and North East Somerset
  • 8. Bath and North East Somerset Clinical Commissioning Groups (2012), Bath and North East Somerset Clinical Commissioning Groups Commissioning Intentions for the cancer programme for 2013/14
  • 9.   Bath and North East Somerset Council 2012 Measuring Subjective Wellbeing: Bath and North East Somerset Summary http://www.bathnes.gov.uk/sites/default/files/measuring_subjective_wellbeing_-_briefing_note_270712.pdf 
  • 10.  Millward D and Karlsen S Tobacco Use among Ethnic Minority populations and cessation intervention. A Race Equality Foundation Briefing Paper May 2011 www.better-health.org.uk
  • 11. Sirona  (2012) B&NES Stop Smoking Service Statistics 2012/13 
  • 12. Bath and North East Somerset Council (November 2011) Policy Development and Scrutiny Panel; School Performance Data Report
  • 13. Freeman H (2011) Hate Crime Problem Profile, Bath and North East Somerset Council
  • 14. Avon and Somerset Constabulary ASPIRE data (2013) Types of hate crimes and incidents recorded by the police in Bath and North East Somerset, February 2012 – February 2013, In house analysis, Research and Intelligence Team, Bath and North East Somerset Council
  • 15. Jansson, K (2006) Black and Minority Ethnic groups’ experiences and perceptions of crime, racially motivated crime and the police: findings from the 2004/05 British Crime Survey, Home Office.
  • 16. Freeman H (2011) Hate Crime Problem Profile, Bath and North East Somerset Council
  • 17. Freeman H (2011) Hate Crime Problem Profile, Bath and North East Somerset Council
  • 18. Dick, S. (2008) Homophobic Hate Crime: A Gay British Crime Survey, Stonewall
  • 19. Crown Prosecution Service (Dec 2010) Hate crime and crimes against older people report
  • 20. Dick, S. (2008) Homophobic Hate Crime: A Gay British Crime Survey, Stonewall
  • 21. Jansson, K (2006) Black and Minority Ethnic groups’ experiences and perceptions of crime, racially motivated crime and the police: findings from the 2004/05 British Crime Survey, Home Office
  • 22. Dick, S. (2008) Homophobic Hate Crime: A Gay British Crime Survey, Stonewall
  • 23. Freeman H (2011) Hate Crime Problem Profile, Bath and North East Somerset Council
  • 24. Bath and North East Somerset Council, Bath and North East Somerset Council Safeguarding Children’s Board – Annual Report 12/13 and Action Plan 13/14  (Draft at Jan 2013)
  • 25. Bath and North East Somerset Council (2012) Local Safeguarding Adults Board, Annual Report 2011-2012. http://www.bathnes.gov.uk/sites/default/files/siteimages/lsab_annual_report_2011_12_and_business_plan_2012_15.pdf
  • 26. BHA - State of health, black and other minority groups http://www.healthwatchsomerset.co.uk/sites/default/files/State%20of%20Health%20-%20Black%20and%20other%20Minority%20Groups.pdf