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Part of: Domestic Abuse

Related to: Children Exposed to Domestic Abuse Domestic Abuse Characteristics, New Way Service Families Profile, Domestic Abuse Victims, Recording and Understanding Domestic Abuse People with Multiple Needs, Socio-economic Inequality, Ill Health and Disability, Mental Health and Illness, Safeguarding Children and Young People, Ethnicity, Sex and Gender, Sexual Orientation, Alcohol, Carers, Police Assessments, Youth Offending, Employment and Economic Activity, Homelessness, Night Time Economy, Safeguarding Adults, Self-Harm, Substance Misuse Suicide and Mortality of Undetermined Intent, Emotional Health and Wellbeing of Children and Young People

For information about the help that is available in Bath and North East Somerset see the Interpersonal Violence & Abuse Strategic Partnership Leaflet on Domestic Violence and Abuse Services.

Link to the NICE (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence) guidance on how health and social care services can respond effectively to the problem of domestic abuse. This guidance was published in February 2014.

Key Facts

  • 79% of all recorded perpetrators of domestic abuse crimes in Bath and North East Somerset were male.
  • Over half of the domestic abuse crimes recorded between 2010 and 2012 were perpetrated by people 33 years old and under.
  • In 2015 the police recorded 59 under 18 year olds as being offenders of domestic abuse in B&NES.
  • 44% of the perpetrators of the 70 clients of Southside's Independent Domestic Violence Advice Service (IDVA) whose data was used for research purposes over the six month period between 1st April 2015 and 30th September 2015, were thought to have mental health issues. 
  • 44% of the perpetrators of the 70 clients of Southside's IDVA Service whose data was used for research purposes over the six month period between 1st April 2015 and 30th September 2015, were thought to have had issues with alcohol in the past 12 months, and 46% issues with drugs.
  • Of the 95 domestic abuse offenders supervised by the probation teams as of 15th February 2013, 64% of these had risk linked to Alcohol use and 19% linked to drug use.
  • 78% of the perpetrators of domestic abuse experienced by the 86 female referrals to the Identification and Referral to Improve Safety Programme (IRIS) programme between July 2015 and June 2016 had a previous criminal record, with 24% having a criminal record related to domestic abuse.
  • Since the Domestic Violence Protection Orders (DVPOs) were rolled out in March 2014, in B&NES there have been 45 domestic violence protection notices (DVPN) authorised, 38 DVPOs granted at court and 5 breaches of DVPOs.

Relationship with offender 

Southside - Between 1st April 2015 and 31st March 2016, Southside supported 194 victims of domestic abuse through their Independent Domestic Violence Advisers (IDVA) and support worker services. The data of 134 Southside IDVA clients was used for research and monitoring purposes. For these 134 Southside IDVA clients the primary offender in the majority (62%) of cases was an ex-intimate partner. The data of 55 clients of the Support Workers service were also used for research and monitoring purposes. [fn] SafeLives (2016) SafeLives Insights service report Southside 12 months to April 2016

For one in three IDVA clients (34%), the primary offender of abuse was a current intimate partner. For 4% of the IDVA clients the primary offender was another family member. IDVA clients reported that there was abuse from multiple perpetrators in 11% of cases. 1

For the 55 clients of the Support Workers service the primary offender in the majority (58%) of cases was an ex-intimate partner. For one in three clients of the Support Workers service (36%), the primary offender of abuse was a current intimate partner. For 5% of the clients of the Support Workers service the primary offender was another family member.  2

Gender  

Police - Between 2010 and 2012 male offenders made up 79% of all recorded perpetrators of domestic abuse crimes in Bath and North East Somerset, compared to the 17% of offenders who were female (the remainder are unknown), and this has not changed over time.3

Southside - Between 1st April 2015 and 31st March 2016, Southside supported 194 victims of domestic abuse through their Independent Domestic Violence Advisers (IDVA) and support worker services. The data of 134 Southside IDVA clients was used for research and monitoring purposes. The data of 55 clients of the Support Workers service were also used for research and monitoring purposes. 4

For 92% of the 134 Southside IDVA clients the primary perpetrator of the abuse was male. In the remaining 8% of cases the primary perpetrator was female. For 98% of the clients of the Support Service Worker service the primary perpetrator of the abuse was male. For 2% of cases the primary perpetrator was female. 5

IRIS - Identification and Referral to Improve Safety Programme - is a GP-based domestic violence and abuse (DVA) training support and referral programme. It is a collaboration between primary care and third sector organisations specialising in DVA. Core areas of the programme are training and education, clinical enquiry, care pathways and an enhanced referral pathway to specialist domestic violence services. It is aimed at women who are experiencing DVA from a current partner, ex-partner or adult family member. IRIS also provides information and signposting for male victims and for perpetrators.6

All the perpetrators of domestic abuse experienced by the 86 female referrals to the IRIS GP programme between July 2015 and June 2016 were male.7

 

Age 8

Age of offenders- crimes-bar graph

Figure 1: Age of offenders of domestic abuse crimes recorded by the police in Bath and North East Somerset (January 2010 – December 2012) 9

The single age group that had perpetrated the greatest number of recorded domestic abuse crimes in Bath and North East Somerset for the same period was the 22-27 year olds, making up 22% of the crimes. Over half of the domestic abuse crimes recorded during this period were perpetrated by people 33 years old and under.

Offenders -crimes and probation-infographic

Avon and Somerset Probation Trust is one of 35 [[Probation]] Trusts that make up the National Probation Service. Probation services primarily work with offenders, but they also work with victims. Their key aims are to reduce re-offending and to protect the public from the harm that serious or prolific offenders can do to individuals and communities. They try and achieve these objectives by working to ensure:

  • offenders are carefully assessed to identify the risks they present,
  • offenders are directed to interventions that will reduce their identified risks
  • offenders are properly managed throughout their sentence
  • sentences are properly enforced
  • attention is given to the needs of victims of serious offenders 10

Under 18 year olds 

Police - In B&NES during the 5 year period between 2011- 2015 the police recorded 288 under 18 year olds as being offenders of domestic abuse.*11

In 2015 the police recorded 59 under 18 year olds as being offenders of domestic abuse in B&NES,  this was a similar number to in 2011, 2012 and 2013, but a 16.9% decrease compared to 2014 when there were 71.*12

*Please note - Caution needs to be applied to these figures as the police have recently gone through a change of system and are still working on data quality.

Figure 2: Number of under 18 year olds in B&NES recorded by the police as being a offenders of domestic abuse (2011 - 2015)*13

*Please note - Caution needs to be applied to these figures as the police have recently gone through a change of system and are still working on data quality.

In B&NES during the 5 year period 2011 – 2015 33.3% (94) of the under 18 year olds recorded by the police as being offenders of domestic abuse in B&NES were female and 66.7% (194) were male. These proportions were similar in all 5 years with 35.6% (21) being female in 2015 and 64.4% (38) male.*14

For information about under 18 year old witnesses of domestic abuse see the Children Exposed to Domestic Abuse section. 

Ethnicity 15

The vast majority of offenders of domestic abuse crimes in Bath and North East Somerset between 2010- 2012 were recorded as being White British by the police, making up 69% of the crimes, 1259 incidents. In terms of number of incidents, White - Other is the next largest ethnic group, with 71 incidents, making up 4% of the domestic abuse crimes recorded. It should be noted though that no ethnicity was recorded for 21% of these domestic abuse crimes.

 

Ill-health and disability 

Southside - Over the six month period between 1st April 2015 and 30th September 2015 the Southside Independent Domestic Violence Advice Service (IDVA) had a case load of 219 clients who had, or continued to be victims of domestic abuse. 16 The data of 70 of these IDVA clients during this period was used for research and monitoring purposes.  44% of the perpetrators of these 70 IDVA clients were thought to have mental health issues. 17

 

Substance misuse 18

Of the 95 offenders supervised by the probation teams as of 15th February 2013 who were marked in their most recent assessment as a domestic abuse perpetrator between April and December 2012. 64% (n=61) of these had risk linked to Alcohol use and 19% linked to drug use.

Developing Health and Independence is a charity (formerly known as the Drugs and Homeless Initiative)that provides a comprehensive range of services in Bath and North East Somerset, South Gloucestershire, Swindon, Wiltshire, and Somerset for people who are socially excluded for reasons such as homelessness, alcohol or drug addiction, learning disabilities or emotional difficulties. 19

Developing Health and Independence run a programme for domestic abuse perpetrators who have Substance Misuse issues called Reducing Substance Related Violence Programme (RSVP). Between the first referral in July 2012 to April 2013, there have been 13 referrals in Bath and North East Somerset to the Reducing Substance Related Violence Programme. These referrals have come from a variety of sources such as Social Care, self-referrals, arrest referrals, MARAC and IMPACT (international programme to prevent and alleviate needless disability). 20

Southside - Over the six month period between 1st April 2015 and 30th September 2015 the Southside Independent Domestic Violence Advice Service (IDVA) had a case load of 219 clients who had, or continued to be victims of domestic abuse. 21 The data of 70 of these IDVA clients during this period was used for research and monitoring purposes.  44% of the perpetrators of these 70 IDVA clients were thought to have had issues with alcohol in the past 12 months, and 46% issues with drugs.  22

Previous abuse

Southside - Between 1st April 2015 and 31st March 2016, Southside supported 194 victims of domestic abuse through their Independent Domestic Violence Advisers (IDVA) and support worker services. The data of 134 Southside IDVA clients was used for research and monitoring purposes. For the 134 Southside IDVA clients more than half (59%) of their perpetrators of their domestic abuse were known to have been abusive in other relevant circumstances. 23

IRIS - Identification and Referral to Improve Safety Programme - Approximately 29% of the perpetrators of domestic abuse experienced by the 86 female referrals to the IRIS GP programme between July 2015 and June 2016 were identified as having been abusive in other relevant circumstances (i.e. to a previous partner or family member).24

 

Previous contact with the police

Southside - Between 1st April 2015 and 31st March 2016, Southside supported 194 victims of domestic abuse through their Independent Domestic Violence Advisers (IDVA) and support worker services. The data of 134 Southside IDVA clients was used for research and monitoring purposes. The data of 55 clients of the Support Workers service were also used for research and monitoring purposes. 25

For the 134 Southside IDVA clients almost half (43%) of their perpetrators of their domestic abuse had a criminal record related to domestic abuse, and 34% of their perpetrators had a record for another violent crime. For the 55 clients of the Support Workers services 20% of their perpetrators of their domestic abuse had a criminal record related to domestic abuse, and 27% of their perpetrators had a record for another violent crime. 26

IRIS - Identification and Referral to Improve Safety Programme -78% of the perpetrators of domestic abuse experienced by the 86 female referrals to the IRIS GP programme between July 2015 and June 2016 had a previous criminal record with:27

  • 24% having a criminal record related to domestic abuse,
  • 33% for another violent crime
  • and 19% for a non-violent crime. 

Domestic Violence Perpetrator Programmes – Steps Towards Change 28

The 2015 Project Mirabal report about Domestic Violence Perpetrator Programmes (DVPPs) examines two main questions:

  • Do domestic violence perpetrator programmes help to reduce men’s violence against women and children?
  • How do we overcome the limited capacity of DVPPs and hold more perpetrators to account?

Project Mirabal was a programme of research that combined a multi-site longitudinal study of the impacts of perpetrator programmes with two linked PhDs.

Twelve Respect accredited DVPPs (intervention groups) and thirteen Freedom Programmes (comparison groups) agreed to be part of Project Mirabal.

The research consisted of interviews with men in perpetrator programmes, and women whose (ex)partners were on a DVPP. While 64 men and 48 women took part in the first interview, only 36 men (56%) men and 26 women (54%) completed the second interview 12 months later.

Conclusions – The research revealed that Children’s Services refer the greatest number of abuse perpetrators to DVPPs, followed by CAFCASS (Children and Family Court Advisory and Support Service). In some areas this has created limited pathways into programmes, excluding men who are not fathers. Furthermore, the research also highlighted the continuing limited capacity of DVPPs.

The report concluded that DVPPs are not a ‘miracle cure’. The research indicated that that expecting no violence and abuse from the male abuse offenders after 12 months on perpetrator intervention programmes is unrealistic. However, the research showed that the techniques used by DVPPs enable men to be self-reflective and question gendered assumptions about masculinity in relationships and parenting. Consequently, both the quantitative and qualitative data revealed improvements in the vast majority of the men attending DVPPs, investigated for the report:

  • 12 months after starting the programme, two indicators for physical and sexual violence (made you do something sexual that you did not want to do, used a weapon against you) were reduced from 30% and 29% to zero.
  • There was a 22% reduction during the 12 months in the number of the women who said they felt they had to be very careful around their abusive partner when he was in a bad mood. However, the proportion of women who remained nervous around their partner when they were in a bad mood remained very high, even after the 12 months (75%).
  • The number of the domestic abuse perpetrators on intervention programmes who supported the decisions or choices of their partner increased from 54% to 70% during the 12 months of the research. 

The report also concluded that the programmes had extended the men’s understanding of violence and abuse, with clear shifts from talking about standalone incidents of physical violence to beginning to recognise ongoing coercive control. Furthermore, the research revealed that the fact that the abusive men were on a DVPP gave some women the confidence to change as well – to set new boundaries and reclaim space for action that had been constrained by abuse. 

Domestic Violence Protection Orders

Domestic Violence Protection Orders (DVPOs) were rolled out across England and Wales in March 2014.  Under the DVPO scheme, the police and magistrates can, in the immediate aftermath of a domestic violence incident, ban a perpetrator from returning to their home and from having contact with the victim for up to 28 days.

The scheme comprises of an initial temporary notice (domestic violence protection notice, DVPN), authorised by a senior police officer and issued to the perpetrator by the police, followed by a DVPO that can last from 14 to 28 days, imposed at the magistrates’ court. DVPOs are designed to help victims who may otherwise have had to flee their home, giving them the space and time to access support and consider their options.

Since the DVPOs were rolled out in March 2014, in B&NES there have been 45 domestic violence protection notices (DVPN) authorised, 38 DVPOs granted at court and 5 breaches of DVPOs. 29 

  • 1.  SafeLives (2016) SafeLives Insights service report Southside 12 months to April 2016
  • 2.  SafeLives (2016) SafeLives Insights service report Southside 12 months to April 2016
  • 3. Urry N (2013) Domestic Abuse Profile 2012/13, Bath and North East Somerset Council
  • 4.  SafeLives (2016) SafeLives Insights service report Southside 12 months to April 2016
  • 5.  SafeLives (2016) SafeLives Insights service report Southside 12 months to April 2016
  • 6. IRIS (2012) IRIS- Identification and Referral to Improve Safety Programme, http://www.irisdomesticviolence.org.uk/iris/  (viewed 26/07/2016)
  • 7.  Holloway E. Monitoring Administrator (2016) IRIS Domestic Abuse Data, Southside 
  • 8. Urry N (2013) Domestic Abuse Profile 2012/13, Bath and North East Somerset Council
  • 9. Urry N (2013) Domestic Abuse Profile 2012/13, Bath and North East Somerset Council
  • 10. Avon and Somerset Probation Trust (2012) About us, http://www.avonandsomersetprobation.org.uk/main/page.asp?ref_page=1
  • 11. Research and Intelligence Team (2016) In house analysis of Avon and Somerset Police, BANES Domestic Abuse under 18 victims, witnesses and offenders – 2011-2015 police counts, Bath and North East Somerset Council
  • 12. Research and Intelligence Team (2016) In house analysis of Avon and Somerset Police, BANES Domestic Abuse under 18 victims, witnesses and offenders – 2011-2015 police counts, Bath and North East Somerset Council
  • 13. Research and Intelligence Team (2016) In house analysis of Avon and Somerset Police, BANES Domestic Abuse under 18 victims, witnesses and offenders – 2011-2015 police counts, Bath and North East Somerset Council
  • 14. Research and Intelligence Team (2016) In house analysis of Avon and Somerset Police, BANES Domestic Abuse under 18 victims, witnesses and offenders – 2011-2015 police counts, Bath and North East Somerset Council
  • 15. Urry N (2013) Domestic Abuse Profile 2012/13, Bath and North East Somerset Council
  • 16. Holloway E (01/02/2016), Conversation over the phone with Urry-Mackay N, Southside
  • 17. SafeLives (2015) Southside IDVA Six Months to October 2015 SafeLives Insights Data Report
  • 18. Urry N (2013) Domestic Abuse Profile 2012/13, Bath and North East Somerset Council
  • 19. DHI (2013) About DHI, http://www.dhi-online.org.uk/about/ (viewed 24.04.2013)
  • 20. Duddridge F (March –April 2013) Personal email communication – DHI input in the Bath and North East Somerset Domestic Abuse Profile.
  • 21. Holloway E (01/02/2016), Conversation over the phone with Urry-Mackay N, Southside
  • 22. SafeLives (2015) Southside IDVA Six Months to October 2015 SafeLives Insights Data Report
  • 23.  SafeLives (2016) SafeLives Insights service report Southside 12 months to April 2016
  • 24.  Holloway E. Monitoring Administrator (2016) IRIS Domestic Abuse Data, Southside 
  • 25.  SafeLives (2016) SafeLives Insights service report Southside 12 months to April 2016
  • 26.  SafeLives (2016) SafeLives Insights service report Southside 12 months to April 2016
  • 27.  Holloway E. Monitoring Administrator (2016) IRIS Domestic Abuse Data, Southside 
  • 28. Kelly L, Westmarland N, Durham University, London Metropolitan University (2015), Domestic Violence Perpetrator Programmes – Steps Towards Change, Project Mirabal Final Report
  • 29. Moore A. Domestic Violence Protection Order Officer (2016) Domestic Violence Protection Orders in B&NES, Email correspondence, Avon and Somerset Constabulary